Thyroid in pregnancy: hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism: | Thyroid disease effects on pregnancy

Thyroid in pregnancy

What happen if thyroid detected in pregnancy?? | Thyroid effects on pregnancy


Thyroid is a small gland situated in front of the neck.  It is a butterfly shaped gland that relaease the thyroid hormone called thyroxine(T3 and T4 hormone). Thyroid gland has two lobes connected with isthmus the bridge between these lobes. Thyroid gland uses the iodine to work. Thyroid gland balances the energy used by the body to perform different functions. Thyroid hormone also helps in metabolic rate and protein synthesis in the body. 

Thyroid gland

If thyroid gland produces more thyroid hormone I.e more thyroxine this condition called hyperthyroidism. And if thyroid gland produces less thyroid hormone I.e less thyroxine is called hypothyroidism.

Thyroid in pregnancy:

Abnormal functionalities in thyroid gland cause the thyroid diseases. Thyroid in pregnancy is not harmful but in some cases thyroid in pregnancy becomes the major reason of miscarriage or birth defects. Thyroid hormone plays a vital role in pregnancy.  It helps in the development of nervous system and brain development of the baby in pregnancy.  In the first trimester of the pregnancy fetus takes thyroid hormone from mother through placenta. So in pregnancy mother's thyroid gland enlarge for more production of thyroxine to the fetus and mother. Fetus or baby start making it's own thyroid from 12 weeks of pregnancy  but from end of second trimester it may sufficient for the requirement of baby. 

Thyroid in pregnancy

Its difficult  to diagnose thyroid in pregnancy because it somehow have same symptoms as pregnancy.  But nowadays doctor advices to test thyroid in pregnancy.  If the result is positive medicine will give according to your thyroid disease.  

The two pregnancy hormones I.e HCG and estrogen  cause the thyroid to increase thyroid hormone in the mother to meet the requirement of the fetus and mother. 

Increase of hcg hormone in the pregnant woman also one of the cause for thyroid disease  in pregnancy.  Increased HCG levels cause sever nausea, vomiting and dehydration due to which thyroid gland produce more thyroid hormone in the mother which is hyperthyroidism. But this disorder may seen only in first trimester of pregnancy.  Treating to vomiting,  dehydration may help for the thyroid disorder in this condition. 


Hyperthyroidism is seen 0.2 to 0.4% of all pregnancies.  In hyperthyroidism the thyroid gland produces more hormone in the monther. Symptoms of pregnancy and hyperthyroidism are near about same. Some symptoms of hyperthyroidism are weight loss, heart intolerances,  anxiety and sore eyes. 

The most common cause of hyperthyroidism during pregnancy is Grave's disease.  Tn this the antibody called thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI) makes by body cause to release more thyroid hormone.  Which is more than the need of fetus and mother. The extra hormone passes to the child through placenta. 


In hypothyroidism the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone to meet the requirements of the body. Symptoms of hypothyroidism are weight gain,  loss of concentration,  sensitivity to cold, cramps. Most symptoms same as first trimester of pregnancy.  

The most common hypothyroidism is autoimmune disease  called Hashimoto's thyroiditis.  In this the body overreacts  and attacks on thyroid gland by which thyroid cells destroy and not produce enough hormones to complete the need of body.

Treatment of thyroid in pregnancy:

First doctors advised to perform the thyroid test in first trimester of pregnancy to know if there is any thyroid disease in the mother. If the test is positive then doctor recommend the suitable treatment for thyroid disease. 

Treatment of thyroid in pregnancy

In case of hyperthyroidism the medication is given to stop the thyroid hormone production. If medications  doesn't work at pregnant woman, or if pregnant woman seen any side effects to the medication then a small surgery will perform to reduce the gland. Hyperthyroidism get worse in the first 3 months after delivery.  

Hypothyroidism is treated with the artificial hormone which is same like the thyroid hormone T4. This treatment is same in pregnancy and non- pregnant patients. But for pregnant woman doctors diagnose thyroid level every 4 to 6 weeks as in pregnancy the need of thyroid hormone increases.

Post a Comment